Kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the Keap1 gene. Nrf2 (Nuclear factor,NFE2L2) is a transcription factor that in humans is encoded by the NFE2L2 gene. Nrf2 is a basic leucine zipper (bZIP) protein that regulates the expression of antioxidant proteins that protect against oxidative damage triggered by injury and inflammation. Keap1 has four discrete protein domains. The N-terminal Broad complex, Tramtrack and Bric-à-Brac (BTB) domain contains the Cys151 residue, which one of the important cysteines in stress sensing. The intervening region (IVR) domain contains two critical cysteine residues, Cys273 and Cys288, which are a second group of cysteines important for stress sensing. A double glycine repeat (DGR) and C-terminal region (CTR) domains collaborate to form a β-propeller structure, which is where Keap1 interacts with Nrf2. Keap1 has been shown to interact with Nrf2, a master regulator of the antioxidant response, which is important for the amelioration of oxidative stress. Under quiescent conditions, Nrf2 is anchored in the cytoplasm through binding to Keap1, which, in turn, facilitates the ubiquitination and subsequent proteolysis of Nrf2. Such sequestration and further degradation of Nrf2 in the cytoplasm are mechanisms for the repressive effects of Keap1 on Nrf2. Because Nrf2 activation leads to a coordinated antioxidant and anti-inflammatory response, and Keap1 represses Nrf2 activation, Keap1 has become a very attractive drug target.