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The JAK-STAT signaling pathway transmits information from extracellular chemical signals to the nucleus resulting in DNA transcription and expression of genes involved in immunity, proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis and oncogenesis. The JAK-STAT signalling cascade consists of three main components: a cell surface receptor, a Janus kinase (JAK) and two Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription (STAT) proteins. Disrupted or dysregulated JAK-STAT functionality can result in immune deficiency syndromes and cancers.