Apoptosis inducing factor is involved in initiating a caspase-independent pathway of apoptosis by causing DNA fragmentation and chromatin condensation. It also acts as an NADH oxidase. Another AIF function is to regulate the permeability of the mitochondrial membrane upon apoptosis. Normally it is found behind the outer membrane of the mitochondria and is therefore secluded from the nucleus. However, when the mitochondrion is damaged, it moves to the cytosol and to the nucleus. Inactivation of AIF leads to resistance of embryonic stem cells to death following the withdrawal of growth factors indicating that it is involved in apoptosis.