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Ion Pumps/Transporters

Ion pumps/transporters are transmembrane proteins that allow ion flux across biological membranes against their concentration gradient. Ion pumps require energy usually from ATP hydrolysis, whilst exchangers use the energy established by the concentration gradient of another ion. They belong to the ATPase and solute carrier families and are important for maintaining the correct concentrations of various ions within the appropriate subcellular and intercellular compartments. Ion pumps/transporters include:
Ca2+-ATPase ;    H+,K+-ATPase;    H+-ATPase;    K+/Cl- Cotransporter 2 ;   Monocarboxylate Transporters;
Na+/Ca2+ Exchanger ;   Na+/H+ Exchanger ;   Na+/K+ ATPase ;   Na+/K+/Cl- Symporter.

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