Casein kinase activity was found to be present in most cell types and to be associated with multiple enzymes. The Casein kinase 1 family of protein kinases are serine/threonine-selective enzymes that function as regulators of signal transduction pathways in most eukaryotic cell types. CK1 isoforms are involved in Wnt signaling, circadian rhythms, nucleo-cytoplasmic shuttling of transcription factors, DNA repair, and DNA transcription. The type 1 casein kinase family of related gene products are now given designations such as "casein kinase 1 alpha" and "casein kinase 1 epsilon". The Casein kinase 2 is a serine/threonine-selective protein kinase that is a tetramer of two alpha subunits and two beta subunits. The alpha subunits have the catalytic kinase domain. Casein kinase 2 has been implicated in cell cycle control, DNA repair, regulation of the circadian rhythm and other cellular processes. Casein kinase 2 activity has been reported to be activated following Wnt signaling pathway activation.